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Επιστροφή στο Forum : ΠΑΡΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΕΝΑ ΑΛΛΟ ΠΟΛΥ ΧΡΗΣΙΜΟ



nino334
16-01-2010, 21:18
Αφιερωμενο εξαιρετικα στους "φαρμακοτριφτες" πολλατο με 2Λ και 59+++++++:d:d doh



ΑΝΤΙΒΙΟΤΙΚΑ ΚΑΙ ΔΟΣΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΤΡΟΠΟΙ ΧΡΗΣΗΣ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΘΕ ΟΥΣΙΑΣ

Table 1. ANTIBIOTIC
ORAL (food) DOSE
BATH DOSE (water change recommended prior to each dosing)

Amoxicillin
1.2 - 3.6 grams/lb food per day for 10 days
Not recommended

Ampicillin
150 mg/lb food per day for 10 days
Not recommended

Erythromycin
1.5 grams/lb food per day for 10 days
Not recommended

Gentamicin
45 mg/lb food per day for 10 days
Not recommended

Kanamycin
300 mg/lb food per day for 10 days
189-378 mg per gallon every 3 days for 3 treatments

Nalidixic Acid
300 mg/lb food per day for 7-10 days
500mg per 10 gallons, repeat as needed

Neomycin
1.5 grams/lb food per day for 10 days
2.5 grams per 10 gallons every 3 days for up to 3 treatments

Nitrofurazone
1.12 grams/lb food per day for 10 days
189-756 mg per 10 gallons for 1 hour,

repeat daily for 10 days

OR

378 mg per 10 gallons for 6-12 hours,

repeat daily for 10 days

Oxolinic Acid
150 mg/lb food per day for 10 days
38 mg per 10 gallons for 24 hours, repeat as needed

OR

95 mg per gallon for 15 minutes, repeat twice daily for 3 days

Oxytetracycline (Terramycin®)
1.12 grams/lb food per day for 10 days
750-3,780 mg per 10 gallons for 6-12 hours, repeat daily for 10 days (dose will depend on hardness of water)

Romet B®

(sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprim)
0.148 lb Romet B® Premix/20 lb food per day for 5 days
Not recommended

Note: As a rule, oral/food treatments are more effective, more efficient, less detrimental to water quality, and preferable to bath treatments; remember, bath treatments may hurt biological filtration. Also, some of these drugs are available locally in premixed medicated foods.


1 gram = 1000 milligrams (mg)


Dosage references: Carpenter et al. 1996; Darwish and Hobbs 2005; Darwish and Ismaiel 2003; Noga 1996; Post 1987; Stoskopf 1988; and University of Florida.




Equation 1. To determine the correction factor for an antibiotic that is not pure (i.e., is not 100% active ingredient) use the following:
Correction factor = Dosage rate X 100/P
Where P is the percentage of active ingredient.
Example:

To calculate the correct oral dose of tetracycline with 50% active ingredient using Equation 1

Dosage rate (from Table 1 above) is 1.12 grams/lb of food and P is 50

Therefore, Correction factor = 1.12 x 100/50

First divide 100 by 50, which gives you 2

Then multiply 1.12 by 2 to get 2.24

This means with 50% active ingredient of tetracycline, you need to dose with 2.24 grams/lb of food

This makes sense- you have to use twice as much since your antibiotic is only half strength (50%)


Notes on Specific Antibiotics
The following are some notes on specific antibiotics used in the ornamental fish trade. Many of them are strictly forbidden for use by food fish producers or are otherwise of concern to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has elected to use regulatory discretion to keep products intended for the treatment of aquarium fish available. Officially there are no FDA-approved antibiotics for treating ornamental fish. Therefore, should you have any questions regarding the legalities of using any antibiotics, consult a fish health specialist. For information on antibiotic use in channel catfish, including specifics on use of oxytetracycline (Terramycin®) and Romet B®, see UF/IFAS Fact Sheet VM-70 Use of Medicated Feed in Channel Catfish.

Erythromycin is most effective against gram-positive bacteria, such as Streptococcus species. The vast majority of bacteria that cause disease in fish are gram-negative, so erythromycin should only be used after culture and sensitivity test results confirm it will be effective. Also, erythromycin is not very effective in a bath treatment, and it should only be administered by injection or in feed. Erythromycin is not FDA-approved for use with food fish.

The penicillins, including penicillin, amoxicillin, and ampicillin, are most effective against gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus species; therefore, for the same reasons as those given above, these antibiotics are not a good first choice for most bacterial infections in fish. None of the penicillins are FDA-approved for use in food fish.

Oxytetracycline and related antibiotics are considered broad-spectrum antibiotics (effective against a wide variety of bacteria), and they work well when mixed with food. (See UF/IFAS Fact Sheet VM-70 Use of Medicated Feed in Channel Catfish.) However, bath treatments may not be as effective for all species. One study (Nusbaum and Shotts, 1981) demonstrated that channel catfish absorbed approximately 15-17% of the oxytetracycline added to water with hardness of 20 mg/L and pH of 6.7. However, at least two freshwater fish species (yellow perch and hybrid tilapia) did not have the expected levels of this antibiotic in their blood when exposed experimentally to oxytetracycline as a bath treatment for up to 8 hours (K. Hughes, unpublished data; S.A. Smith, Virginia Tech, pers. comm. 2002; and R.P.E. Yanong, University of Florida, unpublished data). In addition, calcium and magnesium bind to tetracycline and oxytetracycline rendering them inactive. This means that with increasing water hardness (i.e., increases in calcium and magnesium levels), it is necessary to increase the dosages of these drugs in bath treatments. Tetracyclines are ineffective when used as a bath treatment for saltwater fish.

Tetracyclines are light sensitive, and they turn brown when decomposing. This contributes to poor water quality and may be harmful to the fish. Water should be changed immediately after the bath treatment period is concluded. Due to years of misuse, several bacteria in many different facilities are now resistant to tetracyclines. Oxytetracycline still works adequately against most cases of Flavobacterium columnare (columnaris disease).

Terramycin ® is a brand of oxytetracycline manufactured by Pfizer that is FDA approved for use in the production of salmonids, channel catfish and lobsters (See UF/IFAS Fact Sheet VM-70 Use of Medicated Feed in Channel Catfish).

The aminoglycosides, including gentamicin, neomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin, are very effective against gram-negative bacteria infections when administered by injection. Unfortunately, this group has also been shown to cause kidney damage in fish when administered by this technique.

As a group, these antibiotics are not considered effective when used in oral or bath treatments. A couple of exceptions may be kanamycin and neomycin, both of which may be effective against external infections if used in bath treatments. In addition, kanamycin is also believed to be effective when mixed with feed to treat gastrointestinal bacterial infections (Gilmartin, Camp and Lewis, 1976).

None of the aminoglycosides are approved by the FDA for use with food fish.

The quinolones, including nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid are considered broad-spectrum antibiotics, like the tetracyclines, and they work against a wide variety of bacteria. These antibiotics work best at acidic pHs of 6.9 or less, and they are inhibited by hard water. Although they appear to work well in both bath and oral treatments, some fish may sink to the bottom and appear lethargic after bath treatments.

These antibiotics have been shown to damage the nervous system of other animals and none are approved by the FDA for use with fish. Quinolones are closely related to a category of antibacterials known as 'fluoroquinolones,' which are categorized as 'of high regulatory concern' by the FDA. Use of fluoroquinolones or quinolones to treat any food animal is illegal and completely irresponsible.

The nitrofurans, including nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone, furanace, and furazolidone, are commonly used in the ornamental fish trade, but the FDA strictly forbids their use by producers of food fish. Nitrofurazone is specifically categorized as 'of high regulatory concern' by the FDA and should not be present at any facility where food species are raised.

Although nitrofurans are commonly used in bath treatments, they are probably most effective against superficial infections and, in at least one study, nitrofurazone was not readily absorbed into the body of either gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) or tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in experimental trials (Colorni and Paperna, 1983). Within the group, furanace appears to be the most effective for use in bath treatments.

To achieve the most effective result when using a nitrofuran in a bath treatment, either some sort of cover or a darkened treatment location should be considered, as the nitrofurans can be inactivated by light. Nitrofurans as oral treatments may not be as effective as previously believed, although the proper pharmacokinetic research needs to be performed to verify this conclusion.

The sulfa drugs, including Romet®, are also considered to be broad-spectrum antibiotics. There are many different types of sulfa drugs. The more common sulfas are not as effective as they once were, due to their misuse or overuse resulting in the creation of many bacteria that are now resistant to them. On the other hand, the potentiated sulfas, including Romet®, are still very effective.

Romet® works well when mixed with feed, but it does not work well as a bath treatment. It is FDA-approved for use with channel catfish and salmonids.

ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΞΑΜΗΝΟΥ ΘΑ ΣΑΣ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΩ ΓΡΑΠΤΩΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΩΣ


!rifle!!rifle!:rolleyes::rolleyes::d:d

ChristosP
16-01-2010, 21:29
Το έχω ρεεεεεεεεεεεεεεεεεεεεne55

Είναι χρήσιμο απλά να πω ότι όλα αυτά σε ενυδρείο καραντίνα για να μπορούμε να προλάβουμε τυχόν κάτι που πάει στραβά ;)

Ευχαριστούμε πάντως για την βοήθεια σου το τελευταίο καιρό που είναι πολύ καλή :thumbup:και φυσικά χρήσιμη

Νινο καλό είναι να βάζεις και από που προέρχεται η πληροφορία μην έχουμε κανένα θέμα ;)

ChristosP
17-01-2010, 08:13
Δεν θα μεταφράσω τις δοσολογίες που είναι κάτι που το καταλαβαίνουν όλοι αλλά θα μεταφράσω την αποτελεσμάτικότητα του κάθε ομάδας που αναφέρει και το πως πρέπει να χειριστούμε το κάθε φάρμακο . Μάλιστα θα το συνδέσω με το υπόμνημα που έχουμε κάνει για τα αντιβιοτικά http://www.greekdiscus.com/test2000/showthread.php?t=3556;)

nino334
17-01-2010, 10:16
Δεν θα μεταφράσω τις δοσολογίες που είναι κάτι που το καταλαβαίνουν όλοι αλλά θα μεταφράσω την αποτελεσμάτικότητα του κάθε ομάδας που αναφέρει και το πως πρέπει να χειριστούμε το κάθε φάρμακο . Μάλιστα θα το συνδέσω με το υπόμνημα που έχουμε κάνει για τα αντιβιοτικά http://www.greekdiscus.com/test2000/showthread.php?t=3556;)

+++++σωστοοοοοοοοοοοοοοοοος :thumbup:

Diskus Fan
17-01-2010, 16:27
Καλο και χρησιμο αλλα ... μακρυα απο μας!!!:d